Adam Cullen studied music at NUI Maynooth and received a first class honours degree specialising in composition before completing his MLitt on Schubert's Chamber Music. He has published papers in Maynooth Musicology and spoken at the international symposium Thanatos as Muse. He has performed extensively as a musician and also as a stand-up comedian and has won competitions for composition and comedy. He makes videos which have been shown at some festivals and also writes fiction; his short story Right and Wrong was published in '30 under 30'.
"For the Mountains Shall Depart" was written after winning a choral-writing competition. After so long carefully writing naturally singable lines it became the goal of this piece to explore something more aggressively artificial. Deliberately awkward lines were written and recorded part by painful part. The execution of this work embraced the technological crudeness of pitch-shifted, re-tuned voices doubled with sampled choral sounds in unnatural reverbs.
Linda O Keeffe
Full time Sound artist and PhD fellow. Writer and reader of many texts of theory and fiction. Worked in Ireland and Internationally since graduating from MA in 2004. Fields: radio, performance, installation, dance and theater. Love sound with a passion...
"This piece was made in honor of the Cassini Landing on Saturn in 2005. I found this piece of information only last year and thought it terrible that such a significant event was not marked in any real way.
My work tends to reveal the sounds of the hidden or spaces that we cannot listen to such as in space or underwater. I do not wish to replicate but re translate, conceptually, the experience. This piece used the actual landing recording as well as my own short composition. "
Moniek Darge has performed her soundscapes all over the world. KYE (NYC) has produced 3 albums of her work, including "Sounds of Sacred Places". Françoise Vanhecke is a multi-faceted performer and creative artist. In 2003 she received a grant from the New York Women Composer's Association. She performs and gives masterclasses around the world. Together they soundscape and perform internationally. They appeared recently at the Issue Project Room with Alison Knowles and Annea Lockwood.
"Firenze" brings together different Italian worlds in a sparkling miniature
La Cosa Preziosa
La Cosa Preziosa (Susanna Caprara) is an award-winning emerging sound artist from the Basilicata region of southern Italy. Her works, exploring the intersection between the realism of field recording and the possibilities of dramatic narrative, have been featured in Ethnographic Terminalia (Montréal), the International Streaming Festival (The Hague), Soundwaves Brighton (UK) and BEAM Festival (Brunel University, UK) among others. She lives in Dublin, Ireland.
The concept and structure of the piece was developed around a one-take field recording, a murder of crows loudly approaching and mingling with the voices raising from the open doors of the main village church. Recorded and edited summer 2012 in Italy's largest national park (Parco Nazionale del Pollino).
I am currently a college student living in Culver City who is very passionate about music. I enjoy composing my own music with the computer, and although I like to sit down and consciously compose songs, I often find myself coming up with music at random (and often inconvenient) times. My two great inspirations for my music are videogame music and fusion style orchestra music, both of which I really enjoy listening to.
This piece is composed of phonemes, the individual units of sound that make up syllables, from my own name. It is a very percussive song, and I did not have a particular message in mind when I composed it. I simply wanted it to be fun and engaging to listen to, and I wanted it to be something that people would want to listen to more than once and not forget about after first hearing it.
Juan Maria Solare
Juan Maria Solare was born in Buenos Aires in 1966 and has lived in Germany since 1993 as a composer and pianist. After his diplomas in piano, composition and conducting at the Conservatorio Nacional in Buenos Aires, he undertook postgraduate studies with Fritsch, Barlow, Humpert and Kagel (in Cologne) and Lachenmann (in Stuttgart). Ten CDs by different performers include at least one piece by Solare. Currently he teaches Tango Music at the University of Bremen and Composition and Arrangements at the Hochschule für Künste in Bremen. Solare unifies in his person diverse tensions: contemporary music and tango argentino, South and North, composition and performance.
This 'sonoclip' deconstructs a key sentence of the musical "My Fair Lady": "The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain". Professor Higgins and Colonel Pickering have been drilling Eliza Doolittle incessantly with speech exercises, trying to break her Cockney accent speech pattern, and this line contains five words that focus on a particular phonetic issue. One layer of my piece features my own voice training myself to pronounce this phrase. Other layers use granular synthesis of single sounds derived from this sentence.
The title is an equivalent of this line but: "The rain in Spain" transforms into (Pluvial) Precipitations in the Iberian Peninsula.
Matilda Jane Thayer
My name is Matilda J. Thayer. I was born in Dallas, Tx in 1985. I finished a university degree in French with a music minor in classical guitar studies. I moved to Montréal QC in 2011 and have been attending the Musictechnic Formation. I took private classical piano lessons for three years, and pursued computer music in my spare time. I have made a music video and also prepared original scores for a short film: Imdb.com Elusion (2006). I also improvise on piano, and favor textures changes.
I wanted this piece to be organic, and not perfectly syncopated. Make shift sounds of waves is a line that I took from the novel I am currently working to complete; and the rest of the words; I improvised on the spot: The vibraphone sounding colours in the background are steel drum samples that I found; and the percussion is made using my hands on the couch: The fabrics of the couch is just a grain type cotton; and the unsyncopated beats in my opinion give more personality to the overall feel
Dixie is a Minneapolis composer, sound artist, theatrical sound designer and radio broadcaster. She has collaborated with artists in theater, dance, film and interdisciplinary formats, creates audio documentaries and is founder/performer with the experimental group the Unique Sounds Ensemble. Her work has been heard at the San Francisco Tape Music Festival, Third Coast International Audio Festival, Strange Attractors Festival, Northern Spark, Women's Electro-Acoustic Listening Room & PRX.
Change, created for 60x60, was recorded in Downtown Minneapolis. It is a mixture of fragments from the Occupy Minneapolis marches and urban soundscapes.
The word "viral," comes to mind as a trendy but disquietingly accurate image for Robert Voisey's infectious enthusiasm. He is always ready to mutate and reinfect the process as indicated to maintain the highest degree of project fever.
-60x60: netsuke for the musical mind
Richard Arnest, Sounding Board, Spring 2011
"Cancer" is a miniature from a project called "Constellations" This is a captured recording of a live performance at a Composer's Voice concert. It is interesting to write program notes after pieces are written; then to notice the subconscious motives and methods that make up a piece. The title and the work represent double entendre's and inner meanings on many levels.
Chih-Fang Huang, the chairman of TCMA (Taiwan Computer Music Association), acquired both a PhD in engineering and a master's degree in music composition from National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan. His electroacoustic, music have been performed in Asia, South America, Europe, and the USA, such as Asian Composers League Festival, Israel, International Computer Music Conference, and several pieces selected in Musicacoustica Beijing, Shanghai International Electro-Acoustic Music Festival, and Cente
"Misty Poem" is an electroacoustic music piece, with the idea of walking through a rural area in a quiet and peaceful mountain, to express the contemporary music style with ancient oriental sound in juxtaposition. The aesthetic thinking is based on the poem in the remote oriental ancient atmosphere, to integrate all the transformed sounds into a poem with modern style.
Lisa Whistlecroft is a composer and sound artist from north-west England. She works in fixed media, producing soundscapes from recorded sound, often of natural environments, sometimes processed, sometimes not. When using spoken words, she is fascinated by the liminal space between comprehension and obscurity. Lisa holds an MPhil in composition from the University of Birmingham and, as well as writing solo concert pieces, she works with dance and theatre artists and creates sound design for film.
A bare rock, a wooded headland overlooking treacherous waters, the creak of old wood and iron, the call of birds, the chatter of the present, the shadow of the past, the names. Was she there?
'Was She on the Boat?' features Steve Lewis (voice and found instruments) with Natasha Fewings (invisible dance and voice). The piece is built from washed up and broken fragments of the site-specific performance 'Jack Scout' which was conceived and directed by Nigel Stewart and Louise Ann Wilson.
Hoyong Lee (b.1985) is a composer and sound/media artist from Seoul who works with combinations of electroacoustic sound and visual, including soundscape. He performed his audio-visual work at ICMC 2012 in Slovenia, and got ICMA (International Computer Music Association) scholarship. During the undergraduate study, he majored in Culture Contents Planning which focused on digital media storytelling. Currently he’s studying on New media music composition at Graduate School of Hanyang University. His practice explores ways of deepening the electric musical relationship with digital storytelling.
This piece ‘Snapshots’ represents the very short impression and feelings at the moment, just like taking 'Snapshots'. Especially focusing on his friend's mouth, voice, intonation and conversations, he directly recorded the most of the sounds (Metronome, Female voice, recorder & triangle instrument etc.) and C-sound programming. Through the synthesis and frequency modulation with audiosculpt & audacity, he tried to describe totally soulscape.
Alison Conard is an artist and composer working in digital media whose work explores the coalescence of sound and story. Her broad range of experience includes PhD studies in music cognition at McGill University, leading the art-rock band Voodoo Economics, and marrying acousmatic music with moving images. She incorporates research in neuroscience, artificial intelligence, and cultural studies to create works infused with a deeply personal connection to the human endeavor on a grand scale.
"Pastor Steve Speaking" is an intermedia acousmatic work that exposes the ability of the voice to function both as a tool for semantic communication (for better or worse) as well as a musical tool that can create and augment wildly diverse sonic patterns and textures. In the spirit of the Fluxus and Dada artists, the piece makes light of some of the most primitive aspects and activities of being human: religion, childhood, communication, music-making, and inebriation.
Jose Mauricio Albuquerque
Working in experimental music collective environment since 1985.
I am currently working with constructions made from field recordings. In my projects I would add several tracks in order to obtain a dense atmosphere.
Only voices. All recorded in a Zoom H4n and some edition in sound forge and vegas multitrack.
Allison Adah Johnson
Allison Johnson studied music at Stanford, CalArts, and UCSD, and gamelan in Surakarta, Java and her works have been performed in Asia, Europe, and the U.S. She received grants from American Composers Forum, American Music Center, Center for Cultural Innovation and has published and presented on Asian hiphop, women composers, and sign/gesture technology. She was a guest lecturer at Freie UniversitÃ¤t Berlin and Mills College, and currently teaches composition and world music at Soka University.
This work supplies and enervates text, exerting order on disorder (and vice versa), while appealing to the ethnologic, and often futile, compulsion to bargain content from rhetoric and coax meaning from the dismantling drift of politicking. The title refers to the iconic linguistic example sentence: James while John had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher. Try to punctuate it. Go on.
I attended lessons with Aaron Cruz (an important musician in Mexico) about bass and jazz theory since 2003, and at Centro Nacional de las Artes (CENART) about SuperCollider with Hernani VillaseÃ±or and Ernesto Romero since 2010. My sounds have been selected for Stramash (a podcast from Scotland), In-Sonora V (Spain), Transonica (Mexico), and MOD (Mexico). I have made live presentations at some places in Mexico in collaboration with visual artists. Now, I'm preparing for Live Coding at CENART.
Inimaa Kjixioo means Heart Silence in mazateco, a native language from Mexico. According to the festival, based on number 60, I created a melody using the root and the sixth of chords. A fragment from mexican national anthem is sung by a native girl in mazateco, because I consider our anthem violent, sexist, and intolerant, so noises are trying to coexist with it for letting the melodies emerge. This piece is about music against the extreme violence, racism, and authoritarianism in Mexico.
Kristian Derek Ball
Kristian Derek Ball is a Sound Artist, Designer and Engineer. His artistic works and International collaborations span 5 continents. He earned his MFA in Theatrical Sound Design/Music Production at the University of Missouri Kansas City and BFA from the Kansas City Art Institute concentrating in Sound Art for Performance, Film and Installation. His work has been collected in Franklin Furnace Archive (Multi-Media Art of MoMA, NYC) and his article, Soundscape as Interface: The Threshold Project is being published in the Leonardo Music Journal (MIT Press) in November. He is currently adjunct professor of Sound Design and Technology for the Department of Theatre at Lehigh University and Audio Coordinator at Zoellner Arts Center.
Focusing primarily on the extrapolations of spoken word, this piece is taken and remixed from an anthology of work I have created over the last 10 years. This particular self-portrait references how my work has changed during this period. Upon reflection of life's circumstances and responsibilities comes the search for change in a method of working and change in a viewpoint. From serious issues to whimsy, I have found it interesting to distill a large body of work into a concise duration.
David Berlin is a composer, music educator and arts education consultant. He took his degrees at Carnegie Mellon University and West Virginia University. He is a member of the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, the Society of Composers and other organizations. His music has been performed nationally and internationally. His works were featured on the Millennium Mix 1, 60x60 dance and Vox Novus Burgendy series and have been featured throughout the world.
The futurists of a century ago asserted that musicians must continually enlarge and enrich the field of sounds including machine sounds. Honegger's "Pacific 231" and Prokofiev's "The Steel Step" are two of many musical examples. This piece honors the futurist aesthetic of speed and compression. The source of the sounds is a single tam-tam stroke.
Augustine Jan Seth Maranatha Bannatyne Leudar
Award winning sound artist Augustine Leudar has exhibited work all over the world in spaces as diverse as tropical conservatories to the national gallery of the Czech republic. His music has been played on John Peel and he runs an experimental radio show recenly acclaimed in the Guardian.
In 2010 Augustine also delivered the worlds largest multichannel sound installation filling 4 acres of the tropical Biome at the Eden with real and imaginary jungle sounds .
Sound art = Listening not reading
Verbal thought processes are irrelevant , even detrimental, to the piece so the less said about it - the better.
Arnold Brooks is and artist and musician. His sound work takes as its starting point the treasure trove of possible field recordings in New York City. A major component of his audio work is using a simple hack to transpose entire sound files into one static two-dimensional visual image, which is then altered using image-based software. In other words he draws, types, applies gradients and uses other layers of static transposed sound to mash up the two sounds. The process corrupts the sound file. He uses the same process of field video recordings to make video works and applies the same corrupting technique to the video files. He has shown several times at Anthology Film Archives in NYC.
There is an undercurrent of terror of the machine, which once directed inexorably seeks its goal. Man will often commit any barbarity with the same inexorable focus. This piece is sparked by the scream of pigs and the screech of the subway.
Nena Zinovieff - London based artist, collaborator, composer.
This piece is from a dream I had about living on another planet - in the language of.
Greg Bryant is an assistant professor in the Department of Communication Studies at UCLA. In 2004, he received his Ph.D. at UC Santa Cruz in cognitive psychology. He has been playing and recording music and noise for over 20 years in a variety of styles. Greg has a broad interest in the relationships between music and language, and has published research on the evolution and perception of music, vocal emotions across cultures, and the acoustic properties of voices.
This piece composed for 60x60 uses a looped and improvised electric guitar, manipulated vocal, percussion, Buddha machine, dog growl, fish signals, and a manipulated shortwave radio broadcast.
Nathan Tamborello is a music technology student in the Department of Performance Studies at Texas A&M University.
No Program Notes.
Bernard Clarke is an award-winning broadcaster with RT lyric fm, Ireland's state radio sataion. He has also worked closely with Just Listen (an international soundart festival hosted by the National Sculpture Factory, Cork, Ireland); curated listening posts for WIRED (Waterford, Ireland) and produced radiophonic specialities for the European Broadcasting Union's Ars Acustica group.
chorale plays on the space between two notes, two sounds, two moods, two emotions. Recently, the Irish music company, Ergodos curated "I Call To You" -versions and recompositions of JS Bach's "Ich ruf zu Dir" and that got me thinking on calling on the full and empty heavens.
I used some of the first verse of the prayer.
J Henry Hartman Lowengard
Everything at the foundation of sound and music is fascinating to me - and I write software to explore and build with these fundamental elements . I have a long history of doing this, starting on DEC PDP/8s in the 70s and continuing up to iOS software that you can play with yourself.
A Minute By Minute is made with my iOs apps Minute, Tondo, and Enumero.
LEONARDO JOSE DUERTO
Maturin, Venezuela (23/03/1972)
Geophysical Engineer (Universidad Central de Venezuela / PhD - Royal Holloway University of London), a musician ex officio has carried his curiosity about the nature of the sound from the subsurface to the concert halls. He started his musical training at the schools of Prudencio Esaa and Jose Angel Lamas in Caracas and has done specialization in classical music composition at the University of Stavanger in Norway.
The individual, constructed as a subject for itself and others (as the product of a social dynamics), goes into the difficult terrain of finding identification as a necessary steps in the communication. Any artist must be resigned to accept any outcome, not without experiencing the deep crisis of not fulfilling the expectation of the "Other".
Kramer Elwell and Jon Bash
Kramer Elwell and Jon Bash are both Composers and Percussionists at Western Washington University. Both Kramer and Jon are avid composers with interests rooted in electronic performance pieces, contemporary concert music, media scoring, and sound art.
This piece was written as a contest between two teams of composers/colleagues. To derive a pieces from the ground up within 10 minutes with little to no experimentation but instinct alone. This was the winning piece written by Kramer Elwell and Jon Bash
Jon Paul Bellona
Jon Bellona is an artist specializing in digital technologies and intermedia arts. His music and intermedia work have been shown internationally including KISS; SEAMUS; IMAC (Interactive Media Arts Conference); SLEO (Symposium on Laptop Ensembles and Orchestras); and FMO (Future Music Oregon) concerts. Jon received his M.Mus. in Intermedia Music Technology from the University of Oregon. Jon currently teaches at the University of Oregon in the Digital Arts department.
The Snow attempts to capture the angst and turmoil of a woman between two loves. Five seconds of audio were taken from originally recorded material as the basis for the musical composition. All music was composed using Kyma.
Andrew Heathwaite "is" a xenharmonic composer, performer, teacher and organizer based in Urbana, Illinois. He seeks to draw out connections between xenharmonic tuning systems and utopian social design, and is particularly interested in the processes of learning and learning to learn that accompany xenharmonic composition. He is a co-founder of Oddmusic U-C, a board member of UnTwelve, and has taught at the Xenharmonic Praxis Summer Camp at the Gesundheit! Institute in West Virginia.
The Television Wept is composed with 11 notes out of the Keemun Temperament in 34-tone Equal Temperament. The text is a poem by Carey Smith: "the television wept / for all the horror it witnessed / its tears corroded the tubes / the wires / the red dots the blue dots / it doesn't matter".
Originally from Green Bay, Wisconsin, Brad attended Columbia College Chicago and graduated with a Bachelor's Degree of Music in Composition. He is a composer, the head musical director at pH productions, a paid church musician, accompanist and music tutor.
Brad has been a member of American Composers Forum since 2009 and ASCAP since 2010. He mainly composes for choir and musical theatre. Please visit www.BradKempMusic.com
"Lift Off" was created using only the voice. The entire piece is my voice put through various effects and filters. I describe this type of music as 'electronic vocal music' because by the end of the song, the listener is meant to forget where it began, even though the entire experience is only 59 seconds.
Sebastien is working on sound spatialization with his professors Robert Normandeau at Université de Montréal and with John Young at De Montfort University.
After completing his bachelor degree, he decided to further his research on the spatialization of sound in electroacoustic music, from the compositional process, as well as in the diffusing practice.
Sound explorator, Sebastien travels through the diverse avenues of noise and music in order to capture and compose the novel sounds.
Flamenco music/dance comes from Andalucia, in Southern Spain. It takes roots in Indian, Arabic, Spanish cultures. La cantaora is the singer who is accompanied by a guitarist and a dancer. In this little composition, their playing, dancing and singing are entering a new dimension, being transformed by my use of technology on them. Composed for the voice mix, I kept the essence of her voice, which always perceptible despite all the technology over it.
Josue Moreno (1980, Spain). Music composer with identity issues that others tend to call 'multidisciplinary skills' . While maintaining his level of expertise in music composition, he has worked in sound art, interactive and generative music, musicology research, sound installations, music philosophy research, computer programming, software development, video art, and commercial work for public spaces.
"Romanian Trip" is a signature piece where the gestures and metaphoric representations are the plot that represents a dreamed situation. Even though there is a programmatic inspiration, the sound events are placed according to its inner characteristic qualities and a structural plan. Composed in Jaen in December 2008.
David Morneau is a composer of an entirely undecided genre, a provider of exclusive unprecedented experiments. In his work he endeavors to explore ideas about our culture, issues concerning creativity, and even the very nature of music itself.
606x60 submission from 2007
KO. DO. NA
Many colors in one minute
Lead howling organ, the microphone, voice, prayer
Benjamin Boone is a Professor of Music Composition and Theory at California State University, Fresno. His works have been featured on NPR’s “Weekend Edition” and appear on 23 CDs. His work with German composer and violist Stefan Poetzschare frequently aired on BayerischerRundfunk. He is currently collaborating with U.S. Poet Laureate and Pulitzer Prize winning poet Philip Levine on a CD titled “The Jazz of Poetry - The Poetry of Jazz.”
Song of Summer was made during the full-immersion course “Jazz and Beyond: A Workshop in Improvisation” at the 2011 CSU Summer Arts Festival. The performers are the students and some of the guest artists. I played saxophone. Imagine hallucinogenic heat rising from the parched asphalt as the sun's rays permeate and evaporate all moisture from your being. Welcome to summer in Fresno!
Robert James Pierson
Composer from Victoria B.C. currently enrolled in the Concordia Electroacoustic Program.
The inspiration of the piece is the idea of chaos, how it is always changing and unpredictable, not an evil consciousness, which I once thought it meant. In this piece I show chaos in action as I improvised the processing on the voices with a device I had never used before, recorded in one take, showing that anything is possible in chaos.
Nigel Lorimer Simpson
Nigel aka sunslide is a field recordist / pianist / songwriter with work for BBC and British Council and releases waferhome/ etudes/ fieldpiano/mechanisme/bowie all up on bandcamp.
He's part of a growing suffolk county scene supported by local radio.
this song as a thought of longing
Benjamin D Taylor
The music of composer Benjamin Taylor (b. 1983) has been widely performed across the US and Europe. His prizes and honors include a 2011 BMI Student Composers Award, a Barlow Endowment Commission, and a 2011 ASCAP Young Jazz Composer Award. When not writing or performing music, you'll probably find him playing cars in the dirt with his two boys.
The favorite american food: chips. Also, the central component of all modern computers: chips. We as humans need chips the same as our computers do. This composition is a musical collage of the sounds we all associate with eating chips. Aren't you hungry?
Originally from Oxford UK, Julia Norton now lives in the San Francisco Bay Area. She is an experimental vocalist and general noise maker, who divides her time between writing, teaching, music directing & as a teaching artist for the San Francisco Opera Guild where she helps school children write their own operas from scratch. She has won awards and grants in recognition of her work. She loves to take part in 60x60 and always leaves her submission until the last minute!
I love to listen to French music and like many people I'm sure, enjoy the sophistication and ambience of it without always understanding what is being said. What if they were saying "Where is your dog? He's eating the pigeon" It wouldn't be half as romantic. I have been told in the past that I spoke French like an African truck driver. Nowadays it's much worse, so I apologize to ALL for the mangling. I loved the dog clip I found on FreeSound, he really sounds like he's swallowed a pigeon whole.
Your layers of absinthe and torsion form concretions of hyperalimentation. Demonize your sofa. It will lend forth more peanuts between the cushions.
Be still my watermelon rind. I am consumed with your collection of agile fans and pocked blades.
La vaselina es una mezcla homogénea de hidrocarburos saturados de cadena larga. Generalmente, cadenas de mas de 25 Atomos de carbono, que se obtienen a partir del refino de una fraccion pesada del petraleo. La composicion de dicha mezcla puede variar dependiendo de la clase de petroleo y del procedimiento de refino.
Many kind people have performed the music of James Bohn, including: The Acadian Winds, Emergo Orchestra Productions, Ensemble Decadanse, Corey Jane, Holt, Margaret Lancaster, the New Bedford Choral Society, The New Boston Duo, The New York Miniaturist Ensemble, New York System, POW!!, The Rhode Island College Choir, The Rhode Island College Symphony Orchestra, Thump, the University of Illinois Symphonic Orchestra, and the University of Illinois Trombone Ensemble. Performing music by James Bohn is also an effective form of weight loss. In addition, people who perform music by James Bohn develop whiter teeth and thicker, fuller hair. Science is never wrong.
At times the telephone may seem like an important, fantastic invention. Most of the time however, not so much.
Richard Dee Hall
Richard Hall is a musician, composer and music educator whose main interest is performing live laptop "art" music in concert settings. He has received numerous commissions, scored films and theatrical productions, published articles and musical works and is featured on ERM Media recordings. Richard's music has been performed at conferences for the International Computer Music Conference, CMS, SCI, NACUSA, ISIM, the National Flute Association, the Vox Novus 60x60 Contemporary Music Project.
“Los Gritos de la Inocentes” (The Cries of the Innocents) is a work written for the Ear to the Earth 60x60 project. It contains manipulations of one-60 second sample of a waterfall on the San Marcos River located in central Texas. Due to the serious, heavy drought that Texas has experienced in the last several years, the river is heard crying out for rain in order to sustain its fragile ecosystem. Several species, including Texas Wild Rice and the Blind Texas Salamander are found nowhere else in the world. In 1719, the Spaniards called the river Los Inocentes.